Pakistan was created in 1947, as an Islamic state independent of India. Muslims from all over India migrated to then known West Pakistan and former East Pakistan now known as Bangladesh. The official name is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Pakistan is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population of more than 204 million people. It is the 36th-largest country in the world in terms of area, covering 796,095 sq. km (307,374 sq. mi.)
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan, however as of 2013 it was only the 9th largest city in the country with just over 1 million people.
The provinces, in order of population size, are Punjab (with its capital at Lahore), Sindh (Karachi), Northwest Frontier Province (Peshawar), and Baluchistan (Quetta), the largest in area.
The national language of Pakistan is Urdu and English; other languages spoken include Saraiki, Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Balochi.
The largest city in Pakistan is Karachi which is home to over 13 million people. It is the financial hub of the country and is a major seaport. The state religion in Pakistan is Islam, which is practiced by about 95–98% of of the nation. The remaining 2–5% practice Christianity, Hinduism and other religions.
Pakistan is divided into four provinces viz., Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan. The tribal belt adjoining KPK is managed by the Federal Government and is named FATA i.e., Federally Administered Tribal Areas.
Under the 1973 constitution, provinces have popularly elected provincial assemblies, a governor appointed by the president, and a chief minister in whom executive power is vested. The governor acts on the advice of a chief minister who is elected from the party commanding the support of the assembly.
Pakistan’s economy is growing and in recent years it has had great investment from China. In 2016, BMI Research report named Pakistan as one of the ten emerging economies with a particular focus on of its manufacturing hub. The World Bank predicts that by 2018, Pakistan's economic growth will increase to a "robust" 5.4% due to greater inflow of foreign investment, namely from the China – Pakistan Economic Corridor. The Pakistani rupee over 2015 – 2017 fluctuated between 129 -140 to GBP
Pakistan's climate is dry and hot near the coast, becoming progressively cooler toward the north-eastern uplands. The winter season is generally cold and dry. The hot season begins in March, and by the end of June the temperature may reach 49°c (120°f). Between June and September, the monsoon provides an average rainfall of about 38 cm (15 in) in the river basins and up to about 150 cm (60 in) in the northern areas. Rainfall can vary radically from year to year, and successive patterns of flooding and drought are not uncommon.
Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations and an important member of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
The politics in Pakistan takes place within the framework under which the country is established by the constitution. Pakistan is an Islamic and federal parliamentary republic with Islam being its state religion.
Pakistan has been in and out of democracy, with years of military rule from a democratic system, to an elected government. Politics in Pakistan is volatile and any system can be overturned overnight, with a change of leadership to declaring a government unfit to rule. And the rule of law handed to the military. Since the resignation of General Pervez Musharraf, the voting public of Pakistan have elected successive governments.
Terrorism is a reality faced by the population of Pakistan, it is not exclusive to any particular province and you should keep up to date with safeguarding. You may find yourself and your family liberties restricted at times of political turmoil and any unrest within your province, whether in Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad or any other major city within Pakistan. Certainly the city can shut down and roads becoming congested an inaccessible very quickly.
Pakistan is located in South Asia and is at the junction of Central Asia and Middle East, which gives its location great significance. Pakistan's total land border is 6,774 kilometres long and it borders four countries. Pakistan borders India in the east, Afghanistan and Iran in the west and China is situated at the northeast. While surrounded by land from three sides, the Arabian Sea lies in the south.